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March 27, 2023

Trigger Point Injections Questions Reference List


  1. Barad M, Ailani J, Hakim SM, Kissoon NR, Schuster NM. Percutaneous Interventional Strategies for Migraine Prevention: A Systematic Review and Practice Guideline. Pain Med. 2022;23(1):164-188.
  2. Ashkenazi A, Blumenfeld A, Napchan U, et al. Peripheral nerve blocks and trigger point injections in headache management - a systematic review and suggestions for future research. Headache. 2010;50(6):943-952.
  3. Karadas O, Inan LE, Ulas U, Odabasi Z. Efficacy of local lidocaine application on anxiety and depression and its curative effect on patients with chronic tension-type headache. Eur Neurol. 2013;70(1-2):95-101.
  4. Baron EP, Cherian N, Tepper SJ. Role of greater occipital nerve blocks and trigger point injections for patients with dizziness and headache. Neurologist. 2011;17(6):312-317.

Myofascial Pain Syndrome

  1. Ahmed S, Subramaniam S, Sidhu K, et al. Effect of Local Anesthetic Versus Botulinum Toxin-A Injections for Myofascial Pain Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clin J Pain. 2019;35(4):353-367.
  2. Nouged E, Dajani J, Ku B, Al-Eryani K, Padilla M, Enciso R. Local Anesthetic Injections for the Short-Term Treatment of Head and Neck Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Journal of Oral & Facial Pain & Headache. 2019;33(2).
  3. Lugo LH, García HI, Rogers HL, Plata JA. Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome with lidocaine injection and physical therapy, alone or in combination: a single blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2016;17(1):1-11.
  4. Xie P, Qin B, Yang F, et al. Lidocaine Injection in the Intramuscular Innervation Zone Can Effectively Treat Chronic Neck Pain Caused by MTrPs in the Trapezius Muscle. Pain Physician. 2015;18(5):E815-826. ?
  5. Uemoto L, Garcia MA, Gouvea CV, Vilella OV, Alfaya TA. Laser therapy and needling in myofascial trigger point deactivation. J Oral Sci. 2013;55(2):175-181.

Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment

  1. Oor JE, Unlu C, Hazebroek EJ. A systematic review of the treatment for abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. Am J Surg. 2016;212(1):165-174.
  2. Boelens OB, Scheltinga MR, Houterman S, Roumen RM. Randomized clinical trial of trigger point infiltration with lidocaine to diagnose anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome. Br J Surg. 2013;100(2):217-221.
  3. Boelens OB, Scheltinga MR, Houterman S, Roumen RM. Management of anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome in a cohort of 139 patients. Ann Surg. 2011;254(6):1054-1058.

Low Back Pain

  1. Staal JB, de Bie RA, de Vet HC, Hildebrandt J, Nelemans P. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain: an updated Cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34(1):49-59.
  2. Watters WC, 3rd, Resnick DK, Eck JC, et al. Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 13: injection therapies, low-back pain, and lumbar fusion. J Neurosurg Spine. 2014;21(1):79-90.
  3. Di Cesare A, Giombini A, Di Cesare M, Ripani M, Vulpiani MC, Saraceni VM. Comparison between the effects of trigger point mesotherapy versus acupuncture points mesotherapy in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a short term randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2011;19(1):19-26.
  4. Kocak AO, Ahiskalioglu A, Sengun E, Gur STA, Akbas I. Comparison of intravenous NSAIDs and trigger point injection for low back pain in ED: A prospective randomized study. Am J Emerg Med. 2019;37(10):1927-1931.
  5. Saeidian SR, Pipelzadeh MR, Rasras S, Zeinali M. Effect of trigger point injection on lumbosacral radiculopathy source. Anesth Pain Med. 2014;4(4):e15500.


  1. Scott NA, Guo B, Barton PM, Gerwin RD. Trigger point injections for chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review. Pain Medicine. 2009;10(1):54-69.
  2. Yilmaz O, Sivrikaya EC, Taskesen F, Pirpir C, Ciftci S. Comparison of the Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin, Local Anesthesia, and Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in Patients With Myofascial Trigger Points in the Masseter Muscle. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2021;79(1):88 e81-88 e89.
  3. Developed by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Chronic Pain Management:  Practice guidelines for chronic pain management: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Chronic Pain Management and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Anesthesiology. 2010;112(4):810-833.


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